Best Practices for Dealing with Incomplete Requirements and Specifications

Software Testing

Software project managers have come to recognize that ambiguity in software requirements can be more detrimental than ambiguity or defects encountered in any other phase of software development. 

Unfortunately, many software projects still fail to grasp the significance of validating requirement specifications due to the pressure to release products to the market swiftly. Ambiguity in requirements can be particularly problematic when it comes to regression testing.

Often, what goes unnoticed initially ultimately results in ambiguity with far-reaching consequences as the development cycle begins. The paradox lies in the fact that even when we are aware of the risks associated with neglecting certain aspects, we consciously choose to overlook them, hoping for smooth sailing. Incorporating regression testing into the development process helps bridge this gap by serving as a crucial safeguard against oversights, ensuring the stability and reliability of the software throughout its development and maintenance phases.

Why does ambiguity tend to infiltrate requirements?

Initially, business users create these requirements, defining them from a user perspective and specifying how they envision the system’s ultimate behavior. They often lack the technical insight into how this ideal system should be developed. 

System analysts and architects then translate these requirements into technical specifications. Development teams work based on this version, and quality assurance (QA) validates the application to ensure alignment with business requirements. 

On the surface, this process appears sound, but ambiguity creeps in when the perception of requirements at each stage is not rigorously examined. Ambiguity arises from unclear, incomplete, or insufficient critical information within the requirements or in their interpretation. When discovered later in the development cycle, it triggers a vicious cycle of defects, delays, more defects, and further delays, ultimately impacting the project’s budget and timelines. 

Often, it results in the launch of an incomplete initial product version with limited functionality, thereby diminishing the business benefits. Research indicates that it is 100 times more expensive to rectify a defect during User Acceptance Testing (UAT) or in a production environment than during the requirements stage.

Ambiguity can manifest in various forms, including boundary conditions, negative requirements, abbreviations, functionalities, etc. The primary step in rectifying this is to eliminate ambiguities, which is achieved by subjecting requirements to a review process known as an ambiguity review. 

In addition to yielding testable requirements, Requirements Ambiguity Reviews offer several other advantages:

  • Enhancing requirements and reducing future software defects
  • Designing and mapping appropriate tests to ensure comprehensive code coverage.
  • Evaluating quality attributes and ensuring compliance clearly delineating the distinctions between inadequate and testable requirements.

Challenges of different requirements

The presence of inadequate, subpar, and contradictory requirements can lead to various challenges:

  • Absence of Requirements – When there are no specified requirements, it implies reliance on assumptions and guesswork, undermining confidence. Testing a product or application without a clear baseline is extremely challenging, leading to additional work, increased client-reported issues, and project difficulties.
  • Inadequate Requirements – The saying “Knowing something incomplete is more dangerous than not knowing it at all” holds true when dealing with subpar requirements. Interpreting and implementing unclear or insufficient requirements carries significant risks. 
  • Conflicting Requirements – Requiring conflicting actions simultaneously can confuse both individuals and systems.

Impact of Ambiguity

The impact of ambiguity within software teams can be significant. Ambiguity, regardless of its nature and extent, can disrupt your project delivery. In the era of Continuous Delivery, the least desirable outcome is deploying code into production built based on incomplete and unclear requirements. When your team frequently grapples with such ambiguous requirements, it can result in dire consequences, including:

  • Inaccurate Estimations: Ambiguity in the project scope can lead to unreasonable estimations. Unclear requirements make it challenging to gauge the effort and resources needed accurately, potentially resulting in blown estimates.
  • Missed Deadlines: Ambiguity can cause delays in project timelines. When the scope is unclear or subject to interpretation, it becomes difficult to adhere to delivery schedules, leading to missed deadlines.
  • Misaligned Deliverables: Ambiguity may result in the development of the wrong features or functionalities. When requirements lack clarity, the team may build something that deviates from the intended vision or purpose.
  • Resource and Time Wastage: Ambiguous requirements can waste effort and time. Team members may invest resources in deciphering unclear requirements or redoing work due to misunderstandings.
  • Reduced Team Efficiency: Dealing with ambiguity can hinder team productivity. When team members spend excessive time resolving unclear requirements, it detracts from their ability to focus on productive tasks.

Best practices for dealing with ambiguous requirements

Now let’s see how one can effectively address these issues and guarantee that the software aligns with the expectations of its stakeholders and users. Here are some strategies to assist you in this endeavor.

  • Clarify the Issue

Before you can formulate a solution, it’s essential to gain a deep understanding of the problem at hand. Often, vague or incomplete functional requirements arise from a breakdown in communication or alignment between stakeholders and developers. To prevent misunderstandings and address gaps, it’s crucial to ask questions, solicit feedback, and validate assumptions. Employing techniques such as problem statements, user stories, and personas can help articulate the needs, objectives, and pain points of your target audience.

  • Utilization of Effective Requirements Gathering Techniques: 

During the process of gathering requirements, it is imperative that the business analyst or the involved user comprehensively grasp, draw out, and collect data through diverse methods to pinpoint ambiguous requirements and unearth any concealed ones. Several techniques can be employed, including conducting thorough interviews, crafting follow-up questionnaires, and formulating open-ended queries, among others. 

It is vital to provide meaningful feedback and periodic summaries to demonstrate active listening and ensure that the interviewee comprehends the conveyed information. Ultimately, a deep understanding should be derived from the gathered facts, and the collected data should be analyzed.

  • Establish a Terminology Reference

One of the most effective steps to eliminate requirement ambiguity involves developing a comprehensive glossary of terms. This approach offers dual advantages. Firstly, while creating the glossary, all stakeholders become aware that various business terms hold different interpretations across different groups within the organization. This presents an opportunity to define the precise meaning of a term, at least within the context of product requirements.

Secondly, once the glossary is in place, the business analyst gains access to a finite and universally understood set of terms when drafting requirements, thereby eliminating multiple interpretations. The mere presence of a glossary significantly reduces the ambiguity in written requirements. Moreover, you can enhance the benefits of a glossary by constructing a Business Entity Diagram. This diagram defines business concepts (entities) by outlining their attributes, relationships with other entities, and cardinalities.

  • Formulate Test Cases Based on Requirements

Every requirement should be assessable and confirmable through testing. If you cannot articulate tests that demonstrate the proper implementation of a requirement, it is likely incomplete or vague.

  • Avoid Ambiguous Terminology

Avoid using non-testable words that necessitate subjective interpretation by readers, potentially leading to various interpretations of the requirement. Such terminology can also result in untestable requirement statements. Examples of non-testable words include “minimize,” “maximize,” “optimize,” “quick,” “robust,” “user-friendly,” “intuitive,” “efficient,” and “flexible.” Instead of using such terms, requirements should specify testable values to demonstrate that a particular reduction or enhancement has been achieved.

  • Develop Visual Representations

Visual models serve as effective tools for conveying information in a readily understandable format. Different types of visual models can be employed to present various perspectives on the same information. The structure of visual models can help uncover gaps in information and product requirements that might otherwise remain unnoticed.

  • Utilize Models and Diagrams

Words alone may not fully convey the meaning and context of functional requirements. Ambiguous or incomplete requirements can lead to confusion, errors, and additional work. To mitigate these issues, supplement and illustrate the requirements with models and diagrams. These visual aids help visualize, analyze, and validate the requirements and their interrelationships. Tools such as use case diagrams, flowcharts, wireframes, or prototypes can be used to create and communicate these models and diagrams.

  • Involvement of Developers and Testers in the Requirements Definition Phase: 

Incorporating both developers and testers into the requirements definition phase is of paramount importance, given their pivotal roles in actual software development and testing. When engaged early in the requirements definition process, they can grasp, dissect, and analyze any ambiguous requirements effectively.

  • Maximize the Benefits of Automation

Automation plays a pivotal role in enhancing the precision, efficiency, and effectiveness of implementing a testing strategy. It is essential to pinpoint areas where automation testing can bring substantial value. These areas often encompass routine and repetitive tasks, performance testing, and regression testing.

However, it’s crucial to ensure that your automated test suites remain maintainable and resilient. Some tasks that can be easily automated to conserve effort and time include result analysis, test execution, and data generation. Consistently reviewing and updating automated test scripts is paramount to aligning them with evolving systems. Incorporate test automation across the widest spectrum of software products to achieve optimal results.

  • Choosing the right testing tool

An impeccable testing tool serves as the cornerstone of any testing strategy. While there is an abundance of test automation solutions available, it is essential to select one that minimizes repetitive tasks and provides a high level of precision to meet your testing requirements. Some commonly used automation testing tools suitable for a range of web projects encompass:

LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform to run manual and automated tests at scale. The platform allows you to perform real-time and automation testing across 3000+ environments and real mobile devices. LambdaTest provides seamless integration and extends support for a multitude of widely adopted test automation frameworks, including Selenium and Cypress, in addition to Playwright, Appium, and others.

  • Resource and Time Limitations

In many situations, testing professionals encounter the need to optimize their work within constraints related to available resources and time constraints. These limitations often lead to condensed testing activities, increased risk of inadequacies, and compromises in test coverage due to tight project schedules. To address this challenge, prioritizing testing efforts based on areas with the highest risk and critical functionalities becomes essential.

Testers can enhance resource allocation by implementing risk-based testing strategies that give precedence to areas with a heightened likelihood of affecting the overall system quality. A comprehensive testing approach should incorporate test automation as a pivotal measure, enabling faster execution, maximizing testing efficiency, and allowing testers to allocate more attention to value-added and exploratory testing tasks. By leveraging advanced automation frameworks, testers can achieve extensive test coverage while diminishing the need for repetitive regression testing.


Conducting ambiguity reviews on the requirements document is a crucial practice aimed at the early detection of issues in the requirements stage. It is imperative to scrutinize all ambiguous requirements at an early phase to minimize costs, mitigate timeline delays, and facilitate the creation of valid test cases while building high-quality software.

Dealing with ambiguous requirements in regression testing requires a combination of clear communication, collaboration, and careful documentation. By addressing ambiguity proactively, you can enhance the effectiveness of regression testing and ensure the software’s reliability even in the face of changing requirements.

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